Hopeful Monster [Link]

 > Hopeful Monster is the colloquial term used in evolutionary biology
 > to describe an event of instantaneous-speciation,
 > saltation, or systemic mutation, which contributes positively
 > to the production of new major evolutionary groups.
 > The memorable phrase was coined
 > by the German born geneticist Richard Goldschmidt (1878-1958),
 > who believed that small gradual changes could not bridge a hypothetical divide
 > between microevolution and macroevolution.
 > In Richard Goldschmidt’s seminal contribution to evolutionary biology,
 > The Material Basis of Evolution, he writes:
 > “The change from species to species is not a change involving more
 > and more additional atomistic changes,
 > but a complete change of the primary pattern or reaction system into a new one,
 > which afterwards may again produce intraspecific variation
 > by micromutation.” (1940, pp. 205-206)
 > His thesis however was universally rejected and widely ridiculed
 > within the biological community,
 > which favored the neo-Darwinian explanations of R.A. Fisher,
 > J.B.S. Haldane and Sewall Wright.
Richard Goldschmidt: A Biographical Sketch [Link]
Richard Benedict Goldschmidt: by Edward Goldsmith [Link]
茂木健一郎 クオリア日記: ばらばらになって、それがまた一緒になる時に [Link]